Below you will find informations about the sessions and guidelines for presentations.

Main theme

The main theme of MMV10 is Managing outdoor recreation experiences in the Anthropocene – Resources, markets, innovations. This theme reflects how management of visitor practises in natural surroundings become increasingly dependent on a knowledge-based application of human and natural resources. A better understanding of market transformations and emerging trends in outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism is required in a dynamic world. In the same vein, there is a need to suggest creative and innovative solutions to handle impending management challenges and opportunities in protected and recreational areas. Below is final confirmed list of sub-themes.

Click to open list of confirmed sessions

Confirmed sessions – MMV10 conference 16th – 19th August 2021

  1. Challenges and opportunities in visitor monitoring and management of UNESCO designated sites
  2. Protected area tourism: benefits and community resilience in the age of over-tourism
  3. Covid-19: Impacts on nature-based recreation and tourism
  4. BioTour – From place-based resources to value-added experiences: Nature-based tourism in the future
  5. Recreation, tourism and wildlife disturbance: a human perspective
  6. Visitor Monitoring, Outdoor Recreation, and Education in Water-based Nature Settings
  7. Collaboration to promote outdoor life (friluftsliv) in the Nordic countries – Is an action plan the way forward?
  8. Mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation
  9. Combining social media and ubiquitous data with traditional recreation monitoring to address emerging questions in the Anthropocene
  10. Exploring the use of GPS tracking of tourism and recreation in natural parks
  11. New and emerging smart technologies for visitor monitoring – a critical review
  12. Future directions in recreation monitoring and research
  13. Managing sustainable experiences in nature-based tourism
  14. Recreation and tourism monitoring under increased pressure: practical tools and approaches for sustainable management
  15. Impacts from climate change on recreation and nature-based tourism
  16. Recreation and tourism impact on landscape and wildlife
  17. Visitor strategy and local community development
  18. The Sharing Economy – Supply, demand and consequences
  19. Inclusive and accessible outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism?
  20. Using hybrid choice modeling to understand visitor, land manager, and general public preferences

1: Managing flows and ‘over-tourism’ in (world) natural and cultural heritage sites

Session organisers: Marcella Morandini, The UNESCO Dolomites Foundation, info@dolomitiunesco.info

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

The natural and cultural sites recognized through UNESCO programs, thanks to their extraordinary importance and outstanding value, represent case studies regarding tourism flow management in limit-situations and can provide very useful reference examples at global level. UNESCO, through its programmes (World Heritage Convention, Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO Global Geopark), has contributed to define the concept of world heritage as a value to be globally shared, transforming already known places into popular icons that “every tourist must visit”. This type of recognition has contributed at increasing the attractiveness of these sites but, in many cases, it has led to compromise the balance between the opportunity and the quality of the visit and the integrity of the heritage.In an attempt to manage tourist pressure in iconic places, various methods have been studied: models based on visitor numbers and carrying capacity, evaluations of visitor behaviour, analysis of concentration of people in certain spaces and periods. The set of these methods highlighted how overcrowding and overtourism are multidimensional and complex phenomena which, in order to be understood, must take into account some key elements such as the socio-cultural context, the market trends, the carrying capacity.The case of the Dolomites WHS and the last studies carried out in this Site (big data analysis, carrying capacity, interviews, …) has recently raised some questions that will be addressed during the session: Which are the impacts and which measures and tools can be taken to mitigate their effects? What key elements can or should still be considered? How new technologies and big data can support visitor flows management?The session therefore aims to discuss experiences which preferably apply an interdisciplinary approach and involve different points of view (such as human geography, spatial planning, tourism sciences, innovation studies, engineering sciences, civil protection, etc.).

5: Visitor Monitoring and Management in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves: Status Quo, Challenges and Perspectives

Session organisers:

Arne Arnberger, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, arne.arnberger@boku.ac.at

Session format: Oral presentations and discussion

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently includes 701 biosphere reserves in 124 countries worldwide. Sustainable development, i.e. achieved by nature-based tourism, fostering dialogue for conflict resolution of natural resource use and demonstrating sound regional development practices are main characteristics of biosphere reserves. Innovative policies based on research and standardized monitoring approaches are therefore indispensable. While much research on outdoor recreation and tourism has focussed on national parks, little is known on biosphere reserves and their role for tourism and local recreation, although they cover an extensive area of terrestrial and marine environments and include not only villages but even cities together with their suburban spaces. This session aims in bringing together researchers and biosphere reserve managers in the field of visitor/tourism monitoring and management. Scholars and practitioners are kindly invited to present their results and efforts on this topic to gain an overview on the status quo of international research activities and results in that field. The aim is to reach out for interested researchers and managers on an international level, to enhance the global network of stakeholders working in biosphere reserves. Presentations are welcome dealing with tourism in general (visitor counting, surveys among locals regarding tourism/recreation, tourism management issues in different zones of biosphere reserves) or providing national overviews on that topic as case studies.

7: Advancing the science of visitor monitoring and management related to natural sounds and night skies

Session organisers: Zachary Miller, Utah State University, zachary.miller@usu.edu

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

As our world continues to urbanize and industrialize, noise and light pollution is a growingconcern for managers of parks and protected areas across the globe. In this session, presenterswill advance the science of natural sound and night sky visitor use research by presenting novelways to address challenges to these endangered resources, including methodological andtheoretical advances. Attendees of the special session will be better able to advance their ownresearch on natural sounds and night skies, and understand future needs and trajectories of theresearch area. The following oral presentations are proposed as part of this special session:

  • A quasi-experimental approach to identify the effect of wildlife-friendly lighting onvisitor perceptions, support for management actions, and quality of experience in GrandTeton National Park
  • Tranquility as a measure of visitor experience quality of natural sounds in New Zealandnational parks
  • Using experimental pavement treatments to evaluate tradeoffs and thresholds ofrelated to visitor experiences of natural sounds in Death Valley National Park
  • Natural sounds facilitate stress-hormone recovery: Evidence from the lab
  • Understanding the impact of natural gas compressor sounds on the visitor experience inPennsylvania State Forests• Science-based management of sounds from overflights: A case study from DenaliNational Park and Preserve
  • Science-based management of sounds from overflights: A case study from DenaliNational Park and Preserve

15: Economics of Protected Areas (PA) Tourism

Session organisers:

Hubert Job, University of Wuerzburg, hubert.job@uni-wuerzburg.de

Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, ulrike.proebstl@boku.ac.at

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

PAs are under pressure from land use trends. Hence, objective information on their costs and benefits is needed to make the case for nature conservation and defend PAs against conflicting policy goals. However, a standardized measurement of the overall economic benefits of tourism is not easy to conduct. It requires to estimate those variables, which are quantifiable to reach for a sound economic impact assessment. A measure of the economic significance of PAs is the economic effects of its nature-based tourism expenditures. During their stay in an area, visitors spend money on goods and services. This causes indirect supply-chain spending and induced economic activity by the presence of PAs, which can be estimated by use of economic multipliers at different spatial scales (Stynes et al. 2000; Vatanen/Kajala 2019). To avoid an underestimation of the economic significance, many countries conduct economic analyses of tourism in PAs. The U.S. National Park Service for example has been measuring and reporting the economic effects of tourism expenditures for more than 30 years. So far, they have developed different economic models calculating the direct and secondary economic effects of tourism in the National Park System (Cullinane Thomas et al. 2019). Since 2000, the basic methodology for economic impact analysis of PAs tourism in German-speaking Europe was established (Mayer/Job 2014). The comparability of results is suffering from various approaches, which use different measures and methods to calculate the economic effects (Watson et al. 2007). Overall, it is important to have information on total recreational use for assessing the value, but also for estimating visitor’s impacts on resources, recreational facility management, budget allocation and last not least to defend PAs against competing uses (Schägner et al. 2017). Therefore, it is appropriate to compare, harmonize and regularly report international approaches of economic effect analyses of PAs tourism.

16: Nature-based integration in multicultural societies

Session organisers: Anna Maria Pálsdóttir, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, anna.maria.palsdottir@slu.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Nature is an important element of Nordic cultural identity. It is not only a source of food and commodities for everyday life but can also be a foundation for physical, mental and social well-being. Nature is an important arena for different recreational activities as well as education and vocational training. It is a place where people can meet and share experience regardless of age, gender and ethnicity. Nature-based integration is a relatively new term but used frequently in the Nordic countries. Many actors and stakeholders offer nature-based activities to create a neutral meeting ground for locals and migrants where social and cultural exchange can take place. Academia has taken an interest in the development of nature-based integration and several initiatives have been scientifically evaluated in order to understand the benefits and effects. In this session, research and the practice of nature-based integration will be presented and discussed.

18: The Sharing Economy – Supply, demand and consequences

Session organisers:

Merethe G. Lerfald, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Merethe.Lerfald@inn.no

Leif E. Hem, Norwegian School of Economics, Leif.Hem@nhh.no

Kristin Godtman Kling, Mid Sweden University, kristin.godtmankling@miun.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

The purpose of this session is to present the new and developing sharing economy and the potential consequences for outdoor recreation both in recreational and protected areas. At this session we would like to present a definition of the sharing economy. Furthermore, a discussion of both the supply and demand side is important to understand the development and consequences of the sharing economy. Using new and innovative platforms connecting people with some resources with other people demanding these resources makes it possible to develop a prosperous peer-to-peer market.

19: Inclusive and accessible outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism?

Session organisers: Sandra Wall Reinius, Mid Sweden University, sandra.wall-reinius@miun.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

This session addresses issues of inclusive and accessible nature-based tourism, and outdoor recreation on equal terms for different groups and needs. Access to tourism services and recreational activities is stated in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), and increasingly, national and regional goals, policies and guidelines on accessibility and universal design are being developed. Still, it is a challenge for both public and private actors to make environments conducive to physical accessibility. Recently, Godtman Kling and Ioannides (2019) showed that relatively few studies have been published on nature-based tourism and disabilities. Accessible nature-based tourism appears to be a rather marginalized field of study even though there is evidence that spending time in nature has a number of health benefits.

This session wishes to highlight research on dilemmas and conflicts of interest in planning and management of natural areas, for example, how can improved accessibility and universal design be balanced with other priorities such as the need to safeguard “wilderness” experiences and aesthetic considerations and to protect nature from infrastructural developments.  Are natural area commons open to all? What are the theoretical understandings of the concept of inclusive nature-based tourism?

This session would also like to explore good practices and solutions for increasing accessibility. In order for tourist destinations and recreational areas to be innovative and competitive, both private and public actors need to provide and develop infrastructure that allows for accessibility on equal terms. We therefore welcome research on public – private collaborations in planning and management, as well as research on key aspects for improving accessible tourism among nature-based companies and public organizations. In addition, as participation in nature-based activities can be linked to issues of health and well-being, we encourage studies concerning the topic of health and accessible nature-based experiences.

21: Nature as a Protagonist in Sports and Cultural Events

Session organisers:

Teresa Cristina Magro Lindenkamp, University of São Paulo, teresa.magro@usp.br

Ricardo Nogueira Mendes, Universidade de Nova de Lisboa, rnmendes@fcsh.unl.pt

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Until the end of the 20th century, nature was appreciated for its intrinsic values ​​and for the ecological benefits resulting from the maintenance of traditional and pristine areas. After this period, natural areas were also seen from their local and regional economic potential and, more recently, in an era of image and media, we see that these territories have been appropriated by typical urban activities and users. From huge sports events to electronic music festivals, all these activities and, visitors represent a great opportunity for valuing natural environments and understanding the reasons why we are preserving around 15% of the world in the form of conservation units.

As a direct result, all these new uses and users could add new potential damages to natural areas, although environmental impacts could be avoided or mitigated if management and action plans are accomplished by the involved participants and organizers. Regarding all other aspects, are the benefits for conservation and local communities being properly figured and dully evaluated? What is the real legacy left after these events are over?

Within this scope, the participants of this session will present and discuss the results of studies related to sports and cultural events held in nature, highlighting the benefits for the local populations as well as for the main mission of these areas, i.e. to promote and preserve conservation, biodiversity, and the ecological functions. As an output of the session, we want to discuss different experiences and achievements with researchers, managers and organizers engaged with events held in recreational and proteced areas on how should they be allowed, restricted, evaluated and monitor towards the mission of these territories.

The format of the session is the presentation of at least 5 to 6 oral communications lasting 15 minutes per presentation followed by 20 minutes of discussion with the listening participants.

21: Using hybrid choice modeling to understand visitor, land manager, and general public preferences

Session organisers: Kreg Lindberg, Oregon State University, Kreg.Lindberg@osucascades.edu

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

Choice experiments have long been used in transport, environmental valuation, tourism and other fields to understand choice behavior and the trade-offs that we make as citizens or members of specific groups (e.g., visitors or land managers).  Visitor choices include, for example, what protected area and specific site to visit given the characteristics of available areas and sites.  Citizen choices include preferences for protected area and broader landscape management.  Meanwhile, structural equation modeling has long been used to model psychological and other types of constructs as latent variables rather than as single-item measures.

The integration of choice and latent variable models is referred to as hybrid choice modeling (HCM).  This integration facilitates understanding of the relationship between choices and psychographic characteristics such as values and attitudes.  As Ben-Akiva et al. (2002) note, HCM can enrich our understanding of choices by evaluating the cognitive workings inside the “black box” of respondent choice processes.  For example, (a) how might values and environmental attitudes affect decisions about visiting nature interpretive centers?, (b) how might level of recreational specialization affect decisions regarding hiring of nature-based tour guides?, and (c) how might meanings assigned to landscape types affect citizen preferences for siting of renewable energy infrastructure?

HCM has been applied most frequently in the transport field, but it also has been applied in recreation / tourism and in natural resource / landscape management (Lindberg, Veisten, and Halse, 2019; Mariel, Meyerhoff, and Hess, 2015).  The purpose of this session is to “build community” among those who use HCM in recreation, tourism, or natural resource management contexts, and to illustrate the relevance of this method for those who have not yet used it.

22: Recreation, tourism and wildlife disturbance: a human perspective

Session organisers:

Hilde Nikoline Hambro Dybsand, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, hilde.nikoline.hambro.dybsand@nmbu.no

Stian Stensland, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, stian.stensland@nmbu.no

Léna Gruas, University Savoie Mont Blanc, lena.gruas@univ-smb.fr

Clémence Perrin-Malterre, University Savoie Mont Blanc, clemence.perrin-malterre@univ-smb.fr

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

As nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation become more and more popular worldwide (Balmford et al., 2015) they generate increasing numbers of visitors in nature, which lead to an increasing pressure on wildlife. Studies in the field of ecology report wildlife impacts such as extra energy expenditure, modification of physiological and behavioural responses, or jeopardised feeding process (Arlettaz et al., 2007; Gutzwiller et al., 2017; Marchand et al., 2014). To minimise these impacts, measures targeting visitors are implemented by area managers. However, to be efficient, these measures require knowledge of visitors and how unwanted, harmful behaviours are formed.

In this special session we propose to examine the human dimension of wildlife disturbance from three perspectives to bring out empirical knowledge. First, it seems important to look into the spatial monitoring of visitors. Numerous innovative methods are currently available to complement eco counters and inform on land use of recreationists: phone signal heat maps, social networks allowing access to GPS tracks or geotagged photographs. Feedback from researchers using these methods would be well appreciated by the community. Indeed, counting visitors and knowing their destinations remains a crucial methodological question. In addition, complementary approaches with animal ecology data to assess the potential disturbance of wildlife is welcome in this session.

As a second axis we suggest looking into quantitative and qualitative surveys attempting to assess visitors’ profiles, motivations, norms, attitudes and behaviours towards nature and wildlife including perceptions and knowledge of disturbance. Digging into the question of which factors influence perception and knowledge of wildlife and wildlife disturbance would provide interesting and useful input for both researchers and managers. Finally, we propose to dwell on management measures targeting protected area visitors and how applied research can contribute to make them more effective.  Innovative measures and feedback from field testing as well as visitors’ knowledge and acceptance of management measures could be explored in this axis. The session proposal includes so far two countries, with cases spanning multiple wildlife species and settings. We will be happy to work to expand the diverse perspectives of this session in cooperation with the MMV10 organisers until the abstract deadline.

23: BioTour – From place-based resources to value-added experiences: Nature-based tourism in the future

Session organisers: Prof. Peter Fredman, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, peter.fredman@nmbu.no

Session format: Oral introductions, round-table discussion

Session open for submissions: Complete

Session description:

This round table session summarizes four years of research on nature-based tourism in the BIOTOUR project and discuss future prospect of this sector in the light of a greener economy, more robust communities and sustainable practices. BIOTOUR was funded by the Norwegian Research Council 2016-2020 with the aim to research and disseminate key conditions for future development of nature-based tourism in the bio-economy that contribute to business innovation, community resilience and sustainable use of resources in a Norwegian context. For this purpose, data was collected internationally, nationally and in several case-study areas reflecting significant nature-based tourism settings: Coastal mountains and fjords (Hardanger region), Boreal forests (Trysil region), and Arctic north (Varanger region). This data also captures many of the significant features of nature-based tourism in the Nordic region, stretching from the rugged mountainous western parts to the more forested east and agricultural dominated lands in the south. This region is known for a progressive bio-economy, including service industries such as nature-based tourism. Much of the region also share long traditions of outdoor recreation practices (friluftsliv) and good accessibility to nature through rights of public access – both important for the opportunities and challenges of future growth in nature-based tourism.


The BIOTOUR project was divided into five integrated work-packages focusing on (i) nature-based tourism in the bio-economy, (ii) resource and product analyses, (iii) market analyses, (iv) tourism actors, and (v) management and innovative tourism products. This session will present highlights and key findings from each of these work-packages, followed by a round table discussion around the following topics:


  • What’s next for nature-based tourism in a Nordic context – challenges and opportunities ahead
  • Pros and cons of large and multi-disciplinary research projects with stakeholder involvement
  • Future research – needs and formats

Other (26)

Session description:

If you want to share your research on topics related to Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas that does not fit into any of the sessions above, please submit your abstract in the “Other” session. In our abstract submission system this is session number 26. We will review your abstract and when accepted do our best to match it up with other papers that are close to your topic.


Guidelines for Oral presentations

Most parallel sessions will be 80 minutes long allowing 4 paper presentations. Each presenter must prepare for a 15 minutes oral presentation and a few minutes for questions/discussion. Some “closed” sessions may have other formats that will be informed by the session organizers. We are open for pre-recorded presentations in the open sessions. For pre-recorded presentations, we require that the presenter is present live at the conference to introduce the presentation, share the pre-recorded presentation and ready to join the Q&A. There will be offered speakers meetings in June and August preparing you for presenting at the MMV10 virtual conference. The paper sessions will be held in Zoom Meetings. Each presenter will be responsible to share the presentation or the pre-recorded presentation in Zoom by using “Share Screen”. For pre-recorded presentations, please remember to “Share sound” and make sure you have as good internet connection as possible.


Guidelines for Poster presentations

During the first day of the conference there will be a live poster session August 16. at 6PM CET. Poster presenters are asked to upload a one-page pdf file in the Oxford Abstracts by August 5. This one-page will be in the poster gallery on our programme page. At the live presentation we welcome virtual posters such as PowerPoint presentations, video presentations (storytelling) or other formats you wish to use to present your poster, followed by a discussion/talk with those visiting your poster. The total duration of the poster presentation is 12 minutes including time for questions. This is will be ran twice. The organizing committee will award prizes for the best posters. The poster sessions will be held in Zoom Meetings. Each poster presenter will be responsible to share the virtual poster in Zoom by using “Share Screen”. For pre-recorded presentations or video presentations, please remember to “Share sound”.

1: Challenges and opportunities in visitor monitoring and management of UNESCO designated sites

Session organisers: Arne Arnberger, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, arne.arnberger@boku.ac.at and Marcella Morandini, The UNESCO Dolomites Foundation, info@dolomitiunesco.info

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

This session is a merge of the following two sessions:

Managing flows and ‘over-tourism’ in (world) natural and cultural heritage sites

The natural and cultural sites recognized through UNESCO programs, thanks to their extraordinary importance and outstanding value, represent case studies regarding tourism flow management in limit-situations and can provide very useful reference examples at global level. UNESCO, through its programmes (World Heritage Convention, Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO Global Geopark), has contributed to define the concept of world heritage as a value to be globally shared, transforming already known places into popular icons that “every tourist must visit”. This type of recognition has contributed at increasing the attractiveness of these sites but, in many cases, it has led to compromise the balance between the opportunity and the quality of the visit and the integrity of the heritage.In an attempt to manage tourist pressure in iconic places, various methods have been studied: models based on visitor numbers and carrying capacity, evaluations of visitor behaviour, analysis of concentration of people in certain spaces and periods. The set of these methods highlighted how overcrowding and overtourism are multidimensional and complex phenomena which, in order to be understood, must take into account some key elements such as the socio-cultural context, the market trends, the carrying capacity.The case of the Dolomites WHS and the last studies carried out in this Site (big data analysis, carrying capacity, interviews, …) has recently raised some questions that will be addressed during the session: Which are the impacts and which measures and tools can be taken to mitigate their effects? What key elements can or should still be considered? How new technologies and big data can support visitor flows management?The session therefore aims to discuss experiences which preferably apply an interdisciplinary approach and involve different points of view (such as human geography, spatial planning, tourism sciences, innovation studies, engineering sciences, civil protection, etc.).

Visitor Monitoring and Management in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves: Status Quo, Challenges and Perspectives

The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently includes 701 biosphere reserves in 124 countries worldwide. Sustainable development, i.e. achieved by nature-based tourism, fostering dialogue for conflict resolution of natural resource use and demonstrating sound regional development practices are main characteristics of biosphere reserves. Innovative policies based on research and standardized monitoring approaches are therefore indispensable. While much research on outdoor recreation and tourism has focussed on national parks, little is known on biosphere reserves and their role for tourism and local recreation, although they cover an extensive area of terrestrial and marine environments and include not only villages but even cities together with their suburban spaces. This session aims in bringing together researchers and biosphere reserve managers in the field of visitor/tourism monitoring and management. Scholars and practitioners are kindly invited to present their results and efforts on this topic to gain an overview on the status quo of international research activities and results in that field. The aim is to reach out for interested researchers and managers on an international level, to enhance the global network of stakeholders working in biosphere reserves. Presentations are welcome dealing with tourism in general (visitor counting, surveys among locals regarding tourism/recreation, tourism management issues in different zones of biosphere reserves) or providing national overviews on that topic as case studies.

2: Protected area tourism: benefits and community resilience in the age of over-tourism

Session organisers:

Dr. Marianna Strzelecka, Linnaeus University, marianna.strzelecka@lnu.se

Dr. Sandra Wall-Reinius, Mid-Sweden University, sandra.wall-reinius@miun.se

Dr. Odd Inge Vistad, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, oddinge.vistad@nina.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Protected area tourism is a growing trend worldwide and a key component of a global conservation strategy. It shows potential to have impact on both local communities and visitors as well as broader societal, environmental, and economical aims. Given the problems of tourism sustainability in times of climate change and over-tourism, as well as continuous skepticism to establishing and maintaining protected areas in many locations, this topic raises vital questions about the effects, the utility and the capacity of protected areas to become more sustainable.


The purpose of this session is to disseminate knowledge about the protected area tourism phenomenon and to provide opportunities for researchers to reflect critically on future sustainability under contemporary societal challenges of over-tourism and climate change.


We look forward to studies that apply different conceptual perspectives. For instance, one way to look at protected areas is through the lens of local communities, which can entail concerns about community resilience, wellbeing, livelihoods, conflicts of interest, or environmental justice, in addition to economic development. We also welcome research that uses protected area tourism as a way to foster connections with nature that generate values for individuals, societies, and for nature conservation efforts. Thus, we welcome studies that examine visitors’ values, motivations, tourism performance/behavior and experiences to discuss benefits of protected areas to the broader society.

3: Covid-19: Impacts on nature-based recreation and tourism

Session organisers:

Prof. Peter Fredman, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, peter.fredman@nmbu.no

Dr. Andreas Skriver Hansen, University of Gothenburg, andreas.hansen@geography.gu.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Political responses to the Covid-19 outbreak in 2020 have caused dramatic changes to travel, tourism and recreation in the outdoors. Restrictions on border crossings and the closing of communities have virtually eliminated tourism in many regions, while outdoor recreation seem to flourish where opportunities are available. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic is unprecedented in length, depth and breadth. The long-lasting effects are currently unknown, and so is the “new normal” that may emerge in the aftermath. Real and perceived risks with traveling to both familiar and unfamiliar places, and interacting with unknown and possibly large numbers of people, will probably lead tourists to take more precautions as to where and when to go, what to do and how to behave. Yet an interesting change is the increased use of green areas for recreation. Studies from Sweden show a transition from indoor sports to physical activities in the outdoors, where a “succession” occurs of more experienced individuals moving into more remote areas. Commuting patterns have also changed during the Covid-19 and increases in walking, biking and running implies integrating recreational activity with daily routines. In Oslo, the capital region of Norway, outdoor recreational activity increased by almost 300% in the second half of March 2020 relative to the same dates during the previous three years. The magnitude of the increase was positively associated with trail remoteness, suggesting that green spaces facilitate social distancing. Thus, the behavioural changes described above is likely to cause many challenges for sustainable management of recreational and protected areas also after the Covid-19 pandemic. This session welcomes presentations on all aspects of Covid-19 and the related impacts on nature-based recreation and tourism relevant to the MMV conference themes.

4: BioTour – From place-based resources to value-added experiences: Nature-based tourism in the future

Session organisers: Prof. Peter Fredman, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, peter.fredman@nmbu.no

Session format: Oral introductions, round-table discussion

Session open for submissions: Complete

Session description:

This round table session summarizes four years of research on nature-based tourism in the BIOTOUR project and discuss future prospect of this sector in the light of a greener economy, more robust communities and sustainable practices. BIOTOUR was funded by the Norwegian Research Council 2016-2020 with the aim to research and disseminate key conditions for future development of nature-based tourism in the bio-economy that contribute to business innovation, community resilience and sustainable use of resources in a Norwegian context. For this purpose, data was collected internationally, nationally and in several case-study areas reflecting significant nature-based tourism settings: Coastal mountains and fjords (Hardanger region), Boreal forests (Trysil region), and Arctic north (Varanger region). This data also captures many of the significant features of nature-based tourism in the Nordic region, stretching from the rugged mountainous western parts to the more forested east and agricultural dominated lands in the south. This region is known for a progressive bio-economy, including service industries such as nature-based tourism. Much of the region also share long traditions of outdoor recreation practices (friluftsliv) and good accessibility to nature through rights of public access – both important for the opportunities and challenges of future growth in nature-based tourism.


The BIOTOUR project was divided into five integrated work-packages focusing on (i) nature-based tourism in the bio-economy, (ii) resource and product analyses, (iii) market analyses, (iv) tourism actors, and (v) management and innovative tourism products. This session will present highlights and key findings from each of these work-packages, followed by a round table discussion around the following topics:


  • What’s next for nature-based tourism in a Nordic context – challenges and opportunities ahead
  • Pros and cons of large and multi-disciplinary research projects with stakeholder involvement
  • Future research – needs and formats

5: Recreation, tourism and wildlife disturbance: a human perspective

Session organisers:

Hilde Nikoline Hambro Dybsand, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, hilde.nikoline.hambro.dybsand@nmbu.no

Stian Stensland, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, stian.stensland@nmbu.no

Léna Gruas, University Savoie Mont Blanc, lena.gruas@univ-smb.fr

Clémence Perrin-Malterre, University Savoie Mont Blanc, clemence.perrin-malterre@univ-smb.fr

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

As nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation become more and more popular worldwide (Balmford et al., 2015) they generate increasing numbers of visitors in nature, which lead to an increasing pressure on wildlife. Studies in the field of ecology report wildlife impacts such as extra energy expenditure, modification of physiological and behavioural responses, or jeopardised feeding process (Arlettaz et al., 2007; Gutzwiller et al., 2017; Marchand et al., 2014). To minimise these impacts, measures targeting visitors are implemented by area managers. However, to be efficient, these measures require knowledge of visitors and how unwanted, harmful behaviours are formed.

In this special session we propose to examine the human dimension of wildlife disturbance from three perspectives to bring out empirical knowledge. First, it seems important to look into the spatial monitoring of visitors. Numerous innovative methods are currently available to complement eco counters and inform on land use of recreationists: phone signal heat maps, social networks allowing access to GPS tracks or geotagged photographs. Feedback from researchers using these methods would be well appreciated by the community. Indeed, counting visitors and knowing their destinations remains a crucial methodological question. In addition, complementary approaches with animal ecology data to assess the potential disturbance of wildlife is welcome in this session.

As a second axis we suggest looking into quantitative and qualitative surveys attempting to assess visitors’ profiles, motivations, norms, attitudes and behaviours towards nature and wildlife including perceptions and knowledge of disturbance. Digging into the question of which factors influence perception and knowledge of wildlife and wildlife disturbance would provide interesting and useful input for both researchers and managers. Finally, we propose to dwell on management measures targeting protected area visitors and how applied research can contribute to make them more effective.  Innovative measures and feedback from field testing as well as visitors’ knowledge and acceptance of management measures could be explored in this axis. The session proposal includes so far two countries, with cases spanning multiple wildlife species and settings. We will be happy to work to expand the diverse perspectives of this session in cooperation with the MMV10 organisers until the abstract deadline.

4: Buses and Blazes – Operational Excellence in Park Management. Visitor Use Management and Management in Time of Crisis

Session organisers: Dr. Alain Nantel, Parks Canada, alain.nantel2@canada.ca

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

What tools and approaches are park managers using to improve the experience of visitors and ensure the protection of their park or site? How could I adapt this approach to my challenges? The aim of this session is to hear about the real life application of park management strategies by practitioners from across the globe. What worked? What didn’t? What were the bumps along the way? And what would managers do differently if they could start again?

This session will consist of two 60-minute blocks. Block one will focus on visitor use management. Block two will focus on crisis management and climate change. Each block will have three presentations and time for discussion.

The first block will focus on visitor use management. Three park management professionals from across the globe will outline their challenge and solutions that they have applied on the ground. Detailing the issue, planned approach, implementation and results. They will share lessons learned from real-world experience. Examples could include the implementation of transit or shuttle service, reservation systems, infrastructure development, etc.

The second block will look at management in time of crisis with a focus on the extreme weather events being brought about by climate change. Fires, flooding and extreme weather are the new reality for park managers. Each presenter will outline the challenge they faced, how they responded, their success and failure, and what they are doing to prepare for the next event.

6: Visitor Monitoring, Outdoor Recreation, and Education in Water-based Nature Settings

Session organisers:

Dr. Robert Burns, West Virginia University, robert.burns@mail.wvu.edu

Dr. Danielle Schwarzmann, National Marine Sanctuary Education and Visitor Use, Danielle.Schwarzmann@noaa.gov

Session format: Roundtable discussion

Session open for submissions: Complete

Session description:

The natural and cultural sites recognized through UNESCO programs, thanks to their extraordinary importance and outstanding value, represent case studies regarding tourism flow management in limit-situations and can provide very useful reference examples at global level. UNESCO, through its programmes (World Heritage Convention, Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO Global Geopark), has contributed to define the concept of world heritage as a value to be globally shared, transforming already known places into popular icons that “every tourist must visit”. This type of recognition has contributed at increasing the attractiveness of these sites but, in many cases, it has led to compromise the balance between the opportunity and the quality of the visit and the integrity of the heritage.In an attempt to manage tourist pressure in iconic places, various methods have been studied: models based on visitor numbers and carrying capacity, evaluations of visitor behaviour, analysis of concentration of people in certain spaces and periods. The set of these methods highlighted how overcrowding and overtourism are multidimensional and complex phenomena which, in order to be understood, must take into account some key elements such as the socio-cultural context, the market trends, the carrying capacity.The case of the Dolomites WHS and the last studies carried out in this Site (big data analysis, carrying capacity, interviews, …) has recently raised some questions that will be addressed during the session: Which are the impacts and which measures and tools can be taken to mitigate their effects? What key elements can or should still be considered? How new technologies and big data can support visitor flows management?The session therefore aims to discuss experiences which preferably apply an interdisciplinary approach and involve different points of view (such as human geography, spatial planning, tourism sciences, innovation studies, engineering sciences, civil protection, etc.).

Roundtable presenters are:

Dr. Robert C. Burns, Dr. Ross Andrew, West Virginia University, US (Implementation of the National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Counting (NMS-COUNT) Process: Florida Keys and Grays Reef Case Studies)

Dr. Gerard Kyle, Texas A&M University, US (The normative foundations of social carrying capacity on US inland waterways: A longitudinal analysis of a resource facing increasing pressure)

Dr. Danielle Schwarzmann, Senior Economist, NOAA (National Marine Sanctuary Education and Visitor Use)

7: Collaboration to promote outdoor life (friluftsliv) in the Nordic countries – Is an action plan the way forward?

Session organisers:

Morten Dåsnes, Friluftsrådenes Landsforbund, Norway, morten@friluftsrad.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Outdoor life (friluftsliv) has a strong position in all the Nordic countries, and is mainly built on the same traditions. In the Nordic collaboration, both between authorities and organisations, outdoor life have been a central theme. Nature-based tourism and outdoor life also have many commonalities in the Nordic countries.

In this round-table session, invited researchers and representatives from Nordic outdoor life organizations, will present and discuss opportunities and challenges in promoting outdoor life in the Nordic countries. The session also welcome participants to discuss ideas and reflections from other parts of the world. There will be several short presentations to set the stage, followed by plenty of time to discuss. At the end of the session we will ask if there is a need for a common Nordic action plan to promote outddor life, or are there other and better instruments?

8: Mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation

Session organisers:

Andreas Hansen, University of Gothenburg, andreas.hansen@geography.gu.se

Anton Stahl Olafsson, University of Copenhangen, asol@ign.ku.dk

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

This session is a three part session with a special focus on sharing and discussing experiences with mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation. The topic is timely for several reasons. First of all, ongoing processes on coastal-marine planning (ICZM and MSP) require data on recreational activity on everything from a local to a national level. Secondly, many countries have launched national goals on outdoor recreation, including in coastal-marine areas, but with little systematic documentation of its existence to support planning activities. Third, there is a rise in the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) which demands a focus on how to better include recreational activity in MPAs alongside goals for environmental conservation. Fourth, and finally, there is a need to critically discuss new methods for mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation, which take the special open landscape conditions in coastal-marine areas into account. From all of this, it follows that an effort to explore, discuss and in the end better understand the importance and procedure of mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation must be made, not least in connection to current physical planning and management activities in coastal-marine areas. We therefore propose the following set of sessions:

  • Mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation 1: overview of experiences with mapping and documentation of coastal-marine recreation and nature based travel (presentation-based session).
  • Mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation 2: experiences with couplings between coastal-marine recreation and physical planning and management, particularly in MPAs (presentation-based session).
  • Mapping and documenting coastal-marine based recreation 3: informal meeting between interested academics who want to apply for new funding to secure more research on the topic (discussion forum).

We hereby invite everyone with an interest in our topic to join us!

Keywords: recreation, mapping and documentation, visitor monitoring, visitor management, coastal-marine areas, MPAs

9: Combining social media and ubiquitous data with traditional recreation monitoring to address emerging questions in the Anthropocene

Session organisers: Don English, USDA Forest Service, denglish@fs.fed.us

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Complete

Session description:

Social media and other ubiquitous data offer promise in providing information on recreation and tourism in much larger quantities and much more rapidly than is generally obtained in traditional monitoring programs. Such data may provide particular benefits for understanding recreation behavior in locations that are difficult or expensive to sample. These data also can address emergent management and research questions that were not recognized during establishment of traditional recreation monitoring systems or surveys. Despite the promise of social media and ubiquitous data, research to date has focused more on using them as substitute, rather than as complement, to traditional recreation monitoring programs and data. This session focuses on research efforts that combine social media data and traditional recreation monitoring programs or data to improve our monitoring and knowledge of recreation and tourism. The diverse presentations in this session will provide insights into the current state of knowledge and identify promising paths for future research and management.

10: Exploring the use of GPS tracking of tourism and recreation in natural parks

Session organisers: Erik Meijles, University of Groningen, e.w.meijles@rug.nl

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

When striving for sustainable landscapes, managing organisations of (national) natural parks need to balance recreational, environmental, economic, and social values and perceptions. Park management goals consequently need to focus on nature conservation and development, but also cater for recreational use of the area. Such multifunctional use of the national park may create conflicts. A high number of recreationists using an area could result in exceeding its ecological capacity. Consequently, natural park managers need not only have information on ecological values, but also need data on the spatiotemporal behaviour of visitors.


In recent years, spatial movement analysis based on GPS has rapidly developed and the number of publications on recreation movement has increased substantially. Analysing such data, such as visitor flows, hot spots, popular stop places, use of facilities and other location or time specific activities may help management to adapt infrastructure or offer more divers facilities for different groups. In addition, spatiotemporal visitor data can be used to steer away from sensitive protected zones or alternatively, to facilitate routing to specific areas contributing to a richer appreciation of ecological values.


During this conference session, we would like to exchange experiences in using high-resolution spatiotemporal visitor data from personal digital trackers, such as mobile phones, GPS and AIS devices. We aim to exchange successful analysis techniques and their resulting spatio-temporal patterns of recreation in terrestrial and marine natural areas. We also aim to assess the spatial footprint of nature appreciation, for example human-wildlife interactions, potential pressures in sensitive areas and detection of areas of perceived high recreational values. In addition, we would welcome contributions on the use of such data to increase the effectiveness of managing natural parks.

11: New and emerging smart technologies for visitor monitoring – critical reflections

Session organisers:

Andreas Hansen, University of Gothenburg, andreas.hansen@geography.gu.se

A. Stahl Olafsson, University of Copenhagen, asol@ign.ku.dk

Session format: Oral presentations and panel discussion

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Visitor monitoring involves systematic studies of visitors engaging in recreational activities in a given setting over an extended period through different set indicators and parameters. Traditionally, monitoring methods have included everything from technical tools such as various automatic/mechanical counters and remote sensing techniques, to more active methods such as observations and questionnaire and interview surveys of different kinds. However, with new technologies being introduced every year, new monitoring tools and methods follow. These include everything from drones, blue tooth receivers, QR codes, GPS tracking to PPGIS, smart phones, apps and social media platforms. All of them are rapidly being introduced into our research communities, but often with little thought about their extended benefits and, more importantly, challenges.The aim of the session is to present and discuss new and emerging smart technologies for visitor monitoring. The session is hardly a new topic at MMV, but this time we want to reflect upon the theme a bit more critically, with a particular focus on discussing both positive and negative experiences with smart monitoring technologies and their applications. Furthermore, we want to arrange a panel with experts around the world to reflect on trends and challenges for smart monitoring technologies, including problems with GDPR, applications, technology diversity, costs, data needs, management needs, etc. We therefore propose the following sessions:

  • Smart monitoring technologies Session 1: experiences and examples with new technology uses (e.g. both passive and active methods as well as spatial and aspatial categories)
  • Smart monitoring technologies Session 2: experiences and examples with new technology uses (e.g. both passive and active methods as well as spatial and aspatial categories)
  • Smart monitoring technologies Session 3: experiences and examples with new technology uses (e.g. both passive and active methods as well as spatial and aspatial categories)·      
  • Panel discussion: summary and expert opinions, and coming research needs and challenges.

We believe that as smart technologies and tools are being tested and introduced faster than ever before, we need to address this in order to keep up and share our experiences. Indeed, we believe that we may have only scratched the surface regarding the potential and opportunities that smart technologies may present in terms of improving or supporting present visitor monitoring activities. We therefore encourage speakers to join us in our session with a focus on sharing and critically discuss their examples and experiences.

Keywords: visitor monitoring, visitor management, smart technologies

12: Future directions in recreation monitoring and research

Session organisers: Dr. Marcel Hunziker, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, marcel.hunziker@wsl.ch

Prof. Peter Fredman, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, peter.fredman@nmbu.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

New developments in research and techniques, as well as new needs of users and researchers, will influence future directions of recreation monitoring and research, as evolved from a preceding workshop at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, NMBU, 2019. This includes a need to connect bio-physical and social science (recreation) data through monitoring at a landscape level. The use of systematic collected visual illustrations of the landscape in recreation surveys could also provide new interesting opportunities for research, including possible links to national forest and landscape inventories. New monitoring technologies provide both many challenges and opportunities, and still develop highly dynamically. It is not one new technology, but several, and there is not one technology that will suffice and replace the traditional ones, but rather a multi-method approach or even a method triangulation might be the path to follow. There is also a general research gap in monitoring preferences and recreation in winter landscapes. Finally, there is an emerging research and practical interest regarding the needs of the practitioners in parks and protected areas regarding such data, and about the actual use of them. A key for successful management based on visitor data is systematic collection of data (over time and space), and “easy-to-use” methods. This needs further attention among researchers.


This session invites presentations about a broad range of topics looking at future directions in recreation monitoring and research, including for example;

  • Integrated nature-preference-recreation monitoring at landscape level
  • Bridging social and natural science data through monitoring
  • Monitoring recreation in winter landscapes
  • Use of visual and sensory aids- Easy-to-use, practitioner-oriented approaches
  • Benefits gained from use of monitoring data
  • Policy needs, and how recreation monitoring can help

13: Managing sustainable experiences in nature-based tourism

Session organisers:

Hogne Øian, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, hogne.oian@nina.no

Birgitta Ericsson, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences/ Eastern Norway Reserach Institute, be@inn.no

Monica A. Breiby, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, monica.breiby@inn.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

In view of the need develop sustainable tourism destinations, it has become critical to design destinations in ways that mutually facilitate experiences to enhance visitors’ perceived experience value and destination sustainability. To be competitive, a tourism destination must be able to sustain advantages it possesses for attractive experiences over the long term. Measures taken to achieve ecological sustainability are not necessarily consistent with what is perceived as the most acceptable solutions for reaching social or economic sustainability. Despite the fundamental importance of sustainability to the ongoing competitiveness of destinations, little is known about how destination managers, experience providers and central stakeholders understand the concept and how they believe sustainable experiences best could be realized and managed. What will it require to meet the managerial responsibilities when it comes to developing complex destinations with different stakeholders and increasing varieties of tourism products, in ways that will preserve and enhance well-being for residents and the appeal for the visitors of tomorrow?


This session aims to gather research that pays attention to co-design of sustainable experiences, for both tourists, residents, and experience providers. We call for contributions exploring and analysing roads concerning how to achieve sustainable experiences in tourist destinations.  While contributions that highlight paradoxes and dilemmas coming to the fore when taking the complexity of sustainability and destination into consideration are relevant, we also welcome papers that explore collaborative models concerning the creation of values through sustainable experience products.


We invite presentations around the following topics:

  • Value creation for both users and experience providers
  • Paradoxes and dilemmas regard to the complexity of sustainability and tourism destinations
  • Collaborative models for managing sustainable experiences
  • Co-design of sustainable experiences in tourism
  • Managing sustainable second home destinations year round

14: Recreation and tourism monitoring under increased pressure: practical tools and approaches for sustainable management

Session organisers:

Francisco Javier Ancin Murguzur, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, francisco.j.murguzur@uit.no

Christopher Monz, Utah State University, chris.monz@usu.edu

Session format: Introductions, panel and audience discussion

Session open for submissions: Complete

Session description:

This session will be organized as a discussion panel with short introductory presentations (approx. 15-20 minutes for each of the two topics) and a discussion after each presentation, first between the panelists, and afterwards opened to the public. We will cover an integrative view of the available technological tools to monitor the visitor impacts on protected areas and their relationship with visitor preferences on nature (i.e. cultural ecosystem services). With the increased visitation to nature, especially to parks and protected areas (PPA), there is a growing need for tools that allow rapid gathering of data regarding the visitor preferences in PPA and their impact on the landscape. The aim of the session is to achieve an overview of how the complexity of the combination of increasing visitation with degradation of natural features can be addressed combining different methods.

In this session, we will focus on how modern tools can improve the monitoring and management of visitor preferences and impacts. We have contacted participants with a strong multidisciplinary background, with experience from method development to hands-on management. First, we will focus on methodological aspects, with emphasis on social media and mobile apps as a tool to retrieve geolocated information on user preferences, and the applicability of drones on monitoring of human impacts. Second, we will address the management consequences of increased tourism and discuss how can we integrate the monitoring tools and the obtained results into spatial planning to reduce conflicts and ensure long-term conservation of the PPAs. The session will end with an open discussion together with the listeners.

15: Impacts from climate change on recreation and nature-based tourism

Session organisers: Jeff Dalley, New Zealand Department of Conservation, jdalley@doc.govt.nz

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Climate change impacts recreation and nature-based tourism in a myriad of ways. This session presents research from around the world on the direct and indirect impacts on visitation and visitors arising from climate change. Direct impacts might be loss of, or reduction in quality of, key resources such as snow, other nature-based attractions such as wildlife, or severe, wide-ranging impacts from climate-driven wildfires. Indirect impacts might be how climate change affects tourism demand and seasonal visitation patterns, and how decarbonising the energy supply system affects landscapes and natural resources utilised by tourists and recreationists. The session will present perspectives, methods and case studies, and discuss how the sector can develop in ways that both minimizes the climate vulnerability and the climate footprint of tourism and recreation overall.Climate change impacts recreation and nature-based tourism in a myriad of ways. This session presents research from around the world on the direct and indirect impacts on visitation and visitors arising from climate change. Direct impacts might be loss of, or reduction in quality of, key resources such as snow, other nature-based attractions such as wildlife, or severe, wide-ranging impacts from climate-driven wildfires. Indirect impacts might be how climate change affects tourism demand and seasonal visitation patterns, and how decarbonising the energy supply system affects landscapes and natural resources utilised by tourists and recreationists. The session will present perspectives, methods and case studies, and discuss how the sector can develop in ways that both minimizes the climate vulnerability and the climate footprint of tourism and recreation overall.

16: Recreation and tourism impact on landscape and wildlife

Session organisers: Sofie Kjendlie Selvaag, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), sofie.selvaag@nina.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

The increasing numbers of tourists visiting National Parks and other protected areas contribute to new opportunities as well as challenges. Tourists can experience amazing landscape and scenery, natural resources such as wildlife, unspoilt nature and great outdoor recreation opportunities. The visitors are growing more diverse and their use cover larger areas through longer seasons. Often marked and unmarked hiking trails is the main visitor infrastructure in National Parks and all trail-based activities have a certain effect on vegetation and soils. Some locations and trails remain challenging sites since they are both attractive and vulnerable. National Parks are key habitats for vulnerable species and characteristic landscapes. To protect these values studies that document impacts on landscape and wildlife from human disturbance are important. This can help to monitorchanges, give more precise understanding of threshold levels or cumulative effects and develop adequate and specific management measures and strategies. This session welcomes presentations on all impacts from nature-based recreation and tourism on landscape and wildlife relevant to the MMV conference theme.

17: Visitor strategy and local community development

Session organisers:

Knut Bjørn Stokke, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, knut.bjorn.stokke@nmbu.no

Morten Clemetsen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, morten.clemetsen@nmbu.no

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Nature-based tourism can increase income and wealth and improve quality of life in host communities. On the other hand, it can also cause negative impacts and create conflicts related to nature qualities and local communities. In this session, we will put emphasis on visitor strategy as a planning tool for reduce negative impacts of increased tourism and enhancing the positive outcomes for local communities and visitor experiences. In Norway, visitor strategies are a relatively new phenomenon, limited to national parks and other large protected areas. In addition, Nordland County Council has ongoing visitor strategy pilots in three high-pressure tourist destinations in the region. We invite both practitioners and researchers to present and discuss experiences with visitor strategies based on spatial planning and/or protected area management/regional nature parks. How may such strategies enhance the livelihood of local communities and contribute to sustainable tourism? We wish to address visitor strategy both as process including participation and cooperation, and its content and possible outcomes for affected communities. The session is organized by BIOTOUR, a Norway-based research project with the overall hypothesis that an integrated perspective of the nature-based tourism sector will provide a basis for new products and a more sustainable development. More specified, the session is linked to BIOTOUR WP 2 and 4, related to nature and culture resources for nature-based tourism and community development, and the role of spatial planning.


Keywords: visitor strategy, local community development, protected areas, spatial planning, regional parks

18: The Sharing Economy – Supply, demand and consequences

Session organisers:

Merethe G. Lerfald, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Merethe.Lerfald@inn.no

Leif E. Hem, Norwegian School of Economics, Leif.Hem@nhh.no

Kristin Godtman Kling, Mid Sweden University, kristin.godtmankling@miun.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

The purpose of this session is to present the new and developing sharing economy and the potential consequences for outdoor recreation both in recreational and protected areas. At this session we would like to present a definition of the sharing economy. Furthermore, a discussion of both the supply and demand side is important to understand the development and consequences of the sharing economy. Using new and innovative platforms connecting people with some resources with other people demanding these resources makes it possible to develop a prosperous peer-to-peer market.

19: Inclusive and accessible outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism?

Session organisers:

Sandra Wall Reinius, Mid Sweden University, sandra.wall-reinius@miun.se

Kristin Godtman Kling, Lic, Ms, Mid Sweden University, kristin.godtmankling@miun.se

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

This session addresses issues of inclusive and accessible nature-based tourism, and outdoor recreation on equal terms for different groups and needs. Access to tourism services and recreational activities is stated in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), and increasingly, national and regional goals, policies and guidelines on accessibility and universal design are being developed. Still, it is a challenge for both public and private actors to make environments conducive to physical accessibility. Recently, Godtman Kling and Ioannides (2019) showed that relatively few studies have been published on nature-based tourism and disabilities. Accessible nature-based tourism appears to be a rather marginalized field of study even though there is evidence that spending time in nature has a number of health benefits.

This session wishes to highlight research on dilemmas and conflicts of interest in planning and management of natural areas, for example, how can improved accessibility and universal design be balanced with other priorities such as the need to safeguard “wilderness” experiences and aesthetic considerations and to protect nature from infrastructural developments.  Are natural area commons open to all? What are the theoretical understandings of the concept of inclusive nature-based tourism?

This session would also like to explore good practices and solutions for increasing accessibility. In order for tourist destinations and recreational areas to be innovative and competitive, both private and public actors need to provide and develop infrastructure that allows for accessibility on equal terms. We therefore welcome research on public – private collaborations in planning and management, as well as research on key aspects for improving accessible tourism among nature-based companies and public organizations. In addition, as participation in nature-based activities can be linked to issues of health and well-being, we encourage studies concerning the topic of health and accessible nature-based experiences.

20: Using hybrid choice modeling to understand visitor, land manager, and general public preferences

Session organisers: Kreg Lindberg, Oregon State University, Kreg.Lindberg@osucascades.edu

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: No

Session description:

Choice experiments have long been used in transport, environmental valuation, tourism and other fields to understand choice behavior and the trade-offs that we make as citizens or members of specific groups (e.g., visitors or land managers).  Visitor choices include, for example, what protected area and specific site to visit given the characteristics of available areas and sites.  Citizen choices include preferences for protected area and broader landscape management.  Meanwhile, structural equation modeling has long been used to model psychological and other types of constructs as latent variables rather than as single-item measures.

The integration of choice and latent variable models is referred to as hybrid choice modeling (HCM).  This integration facilitates understanding of the relationship between choices and psychographic characteristics such as values and attitudes.  As Ben-Akiva et al. (2002) note, HCM can enrich our understanding of choices by evaluating the cognitive workings inside the “black box” of respondent choice processes.  For example, (a) how might values and environmental attitudes affect decisions about visiting nature interpretive centers?, (b) how might level of recreational specialization affect decisions regarding hiring of nature-based tour guides?, and (c) how might meanings assigned to landscape types affect citizen preferences for siting of renewable energy infrastructure?

HCM has been applied most frequently in the transport field, but it also has been applied in recreation / tourism and in natural resource / landscape management (Lindberg, Veisten, and Halse, 2019; Mariel, Meyerhoff, and Hess, 2015).  The purpose of this session is to “build community” among those who use HCM in recreation, tourism, or natural resource management contexts, and to illustrate the relevance of this method for those who have not yet used it.

22: Recreation, tourism and wildlife disturbance: a human perspective

Session organisers:

Hilde Nikoline Hambro Dybsand, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, hilde.nikoline.hambro.dybsand@nmbu.no

Stian Stensland, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, stian.stensland@nmbu.no

Léna Gruas, University Savoie Mont Blanc, lena.gruas@univ-smb.fr

Clémence Perrin-Malterre, University Savoie Mont Blanc, clemence.perrin-malterre@univ-smb.fr

Session format: Oral presentations

Session open for submissions: Yes

Session description:

As nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation become more and more popular worldwide (Balmford et al., 2015) they generate increasing numbers of visitors in nature, which lead to an increasing pressure on wildlife. Studies in the field of ecology report wildlife impacts such as extra energy expenditure, modification of physiological and behavioural responses, or jeopardised feeding process (Arlettaz et al., 2007; Gutzwiller et al., 2017; Marchand et al., 2014). To minimise these impacts, measures targeting visitors are implemented by area managers. However, to be efficient, these measures require knowledge of visitors and how unwanted, harmful behaviours are formed.

In this special session we propose to examine the human dimension of wildlife disturbance from three perspectives to bring out empirical knowledge. First, it seems important to look into the spatial monitoring of visitors. Numerous innovative methods are currently available to complement eco counters and inform on land use of recreationists: phone signal heat maps, social networks allowing access to GPS tracks or geotagged photographs. Feedback from researchers using these methods would be well appreciated by the community. Indeed, counting visitors and knowing their destinations remains a crucial methodological question. In addition, complementary approaches with animal ecology data to assess the potential disturbance of wildlife is welcome in this session.

As a second axis we suggest looking into quantitative and qualitative surveys attempting to assess visitors’ profiles, motivations, norms, attitudes and behaviours towards nature and wildlife including perceptions and knowledge of disturbance. Digging into the question of which factors influence perception and knowledge of wildlife and wildlife disturbance would provide interesting and useful input for both researchers and managers. Finally, we propose to dwell on management measures targeting protected area visitors and how applied research can contribute to make them more effective.  Innovative measures and feedback from field testing as well as visitors’ knowledge and acceptance of management measures could be explored in this axis. The session proposal includes so far two countries, with cases spanning multiple wildlife species and settings. We will be happy to work to expand the diverse perspectives of this session in cooperation with the MMV10 organisers until the abstract deadline.